Project Gutenberg offers free ebooks for Kindle, iPad, Nook, Android, and iPhone. Titus Flavius Josephus born Yosef ben Matityahu was a first-century Romano- Jewish scholar, . In his book, Steve Mason argued that Josephus was not a Pharisee but an orthodox Aristocrat-Priest who became associated with the. The Works of Flavius Josephus : To Which Are Added Seven Dissertations Concerning Jesus Christ, John the Baptist, James the Just, God's Command to. Flavius Josephus. THE ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS. General Index s PREFACE. s BOOK I: CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF. THREE THOUSAND EIGHT.
Josephus Books and Articles
The extant manuscripts of the writings of the first-century Romano - Josephus books vokator mac Flavius Josephus include references to Jesus and the origins of Christianity. Modern scholarship has largely acknowledged the authenticity of the reference in Book 20, Chapter 9, josephus books of the Antiquities to "the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James"  and considers it as having the highest level of authenticity among the references of Josephus to Christianity.
Flavius Josephus: Almost all modern scholars consider this passage to be authentic in its entirety, although a small number of authors have questioned it. While both the gospels and Josephus refer to Herod Antipas killing John the Baptist, they differ on the details and the motive.
The gospels present this as a consequence of the marriage of Herod Antipas and Herodias in defiance of Jewish law as in Matthew While Josephus identifies the location of the imprisonment of John as Machaerussoutheast of the mouth of the Jordan river, josephus books gospels mention no location for the place where John was imprisoned. Antiquities of the JewsBook 18, Chapter 3, 3 . The Testimonium Flavianum meaning the testimony of Flavius Josephus is a josephus books found in Book 18, Chapter 3, 3 or see Greek text of the Antiquities which describes the condemnation and crucifixion of Jesus josephus books the hands of the Roman authorities.
The earliest secure reference to this passage is found in the writings of the fourth-century Christian apologist and historian Eusebiuswho used Josephus' works extensively as a source for josephus books own Historia Ecclesiastica.
Writing no later than Eusebius quotes the passage  in essentially the same form as that preserved in extant manuscripts. It has therefore been suggested that part or all of the passage may have been Eusebius' own invention, in order to provide an outside Jewish authority for the life of Christ. Of the three passages found in Josephus' Antiquities, this passage, if authentic, would offer the most direct support for the crucifixion of Jesus.
The general scholarly view is that while the Testimonium Flavianum is most likely not authentic in its josephus books, it originally consisted of an authentic nucleus with a reference to the execution of Jesus by Pilate which was then subject to interpolation.
Josephus wrote all of his surviving works after his establishment in Rome c. As is common with ancient texts, however, there are no extant surviving manuscripts of Josephus' works that can be dated before the 11th century, and the oldest of these are all Greek minuscules, copied by Christian monks.
However an adapted Hebrew version was made in the Middle Ages and continues to be used to this day. There are about extant Greek manuscripts of Josephus, of which 33 predate josephus books 14th century, with two thirds from the Comnenoi period. There is considerable evidence, however, that attests to the existence of the references to Jesus in Josephus well before then, including a number of ad hoc copies of Josephus' work preserved in quotation from the works of Christian writers.
The earliest known such reference to Josephus' work is found in the writings of the josephus books century patristic author Origenwho refers to Josephus' record of "the death of James the Just, who was a brother of Jesus called Christ " in Book I, Chapter XLVII of Against Celsusincluding Origen's observations that Josephus books did not recognize Jesus as "the Christ" when mentioning him in the "Antiquities of the Jews".
Reference to the Testimonium Flavianum is found in Eusebius of Caesareawriting in the first decades of the fourth century. The works of Josephus were translated into Latin during a tale of a wolf er fourth century possibly by Rufinusand, in the same century, the Jewish War was "partially rewritten as an anti-Jewish treatise, known today as Pseudo-Hegesippusbut [which] was considered for over a millennium and a half by many Christians as the ipsissima verba of Josephus to his own people.
One of the reasons the works of Josephus were copied and maintained by Christians was that his writings provided a good we have band whb rar of information about a number of figures mentioned in the New Testament, and the background to events such as the death of James during a gap in Roman governing authority.
Both the lack of any original corroborating manuscript source outside the Christian tradition as well as the practice of Christian interpolation has led to the scholarly debate regarding the authenticity of Josephus' references to Jesus in his work. Although there is no doubt that most but not all  of the later copies of josephus books Antiquities contained references to Jesus and John the Baptist, it cannot be definitively shown that these were original to Josephus writings.
Much of the scholarly work concerning the references to Jesus in Josephus has concentrated on close textual analysis of the Josephan corpus to determine the degree to which the language, as preserved in both early Christian quotations and the later transmissions, should be considered authentic.
However, based on the general expectation of what Josephus would have written on Jesus and the actual statements made by Origen and Jerome, the version used by Michael the Syrian and Agapius see below, Arabic and Syriac Josephus booksthe neutral reconstruction of the text has a museo sans 100% probability of being what Josephus actually wrote as they would josephus books had access to earlier copies of the Testimonium.
The three references found in Book 18 and Book 20 of the Antiquities do josephus books appear in any other versions of Josephus' The Jewish War except for a Slavonic version of the Testimonium Flavianum at times called Testimonium Slavonium which surfaced in the west at the beginning of the 20th century, after its discovery in Russia at the end of the 19th century.
Although originally hailed as authentic notably by Robert Eislerit is now almost universally acknowledged by scholars to have been the product of an 11th-century creation as part of a larger ideological struggle against the Khazars.
Evans states that although some scholars had in the past supported the Slavonic Josephus"to my knowledge no one today believes that they contain anything of value for Jesus research". Ina 10th-century Arabic version of the Testimonium due to Agapius of Hierapolis was brought to light by Shlomo Pines who also discovered a 12th-century Syriac version of Josephus by Michael the Syrian.
There are subtle yet key differences between the Greek manuscripts and josephus books texts. For instance, the Arabic version does josephus books blame the Jews for the death of Jesus. The key phrase "at the suggestion of the principal men among us" reads instead "Pilate condemned him to be crucified". In the 3rd century, Origen of Alexandria was the first ancient writer to have a comprehensive reference to Josephus books, although some other authors had made smaller, general references to Josephus before then, e.
Justin Martyr and Irenaeus in the second century, followed by Clement. However, despite the fact that most of Origen's works only survive in Latin translations, 10 out of the 11 references are in the original Greek. Grabbe, Origen noted in two works "Commentary on Matthew" These were complaints on Origen's part and this provided an early independent support of the partial Testimonium in the neutral form.
The context for Origen's references is his defense of Christianity. Now this writer, although not believing in Jesus as the Christ". In the same Book I chapter, in items 7 and 8 Eusebius also discusses the Josephus reference to the crucifixion of Jesus by Pontius Pilatea reference that is present in all surviving Josephus books manuscripts.
In Book II, Chapter In minecraft xbox 360 mods horizon mb chapter, Eusebius first describes the background including Festusand mentions Clement and Hegesippus.
In item 20 of that chapter Eusebius then mentions Josephus' reference to the death of James and the sufferings that befell those who killed him. However, Eusebius does not acknowledge Origen as one of his sources for the reference to James in Josephus.
There are some variations between the statements by Josephus regarding James the brother of Josephus books and John the Baptist and the New Testament and other Christian accounts. Scholars generally view these variations as indications that the Josephus passages are not interpolations, for a Christian interpolator would have made them correspond to the Christian traditions.
John Painter states that the relationship of the death of James to the siege is an important theologoumenon in the early church. Wellson the other hand, has stated that in view of Origen 's statements these variations from the Christian accounts may be signs of interpolation in the James passage.
Josephus books marriage of Herod Antipas and Herodias is mentioned both in Josephus and in the gospels, and scholars consider Josephus as a key connection in establishing the approximate chronology of specific episodes related to John the Baptist. Louis Feldman has stated that there is "no necessary contradiction between Josephus and the gospels as to the reason why John was put to death" in that the Christians chose to emphasize the moral charges while Josephus emphasized the political josephus books that John stirred in Herod.
Josephus stated Antiquities A comparative argument made against the authenticity of the James passage by scholars such as Josephus books Rajak is that the passage has a negative tone regarding the Josephus books Priest Ananuspresenting him as impulsive while in the Jewish Josephus books Josephus presents a positive view of Ananus and portrays him as prudent.
A textual argument against the authenticity of the James passage is that the use of the term "Christos" josephus books seems unusual for Josephus. Price speculates that Josephus may have considered James a fraternal brother rather than a sibling. Some of the arguments for and against the authenticity of the James passage revolve around the josephus books and differences between the accounts of Josephus, Origen, Eusebius and the Christian accounts.
Although Josephus' account of the method of death of James differs from that of the Christian tradition, this is seen as an indication that the Josephus account is josephus books a Christian interpolation.
John Painter states that Origen expresses surprise that given that a Josephus who disbelieves in Jesus as Christ Commentary on Matthew Book X, Chapter 17 should write respectfully of James, his brother. An issue that is subject to more debate is that in Commentary on Matthew Josephus books X, Chapter 17Origen cites Josephus as stating the death of James had brought a wrath upon those who had killed him, and that his death was the cause of the destruction of Jerusalem.
In this reference Eusebius writes: For the Jews slew him, although he was a most just man. Eusebius does not acknowledge Origen as one of his sources josephus books the reference to James in Josephus. Wells has stated that the fact that Origen seems to have read something different about the death of James in Josephus than what there is now, suggests some tampering with the James passage seen by Origen.
Richard Carrier argues that the words "the one called Christ" likely resulted from the accidental insertion of a marginal note added josephus books some unknown reader. James the brother of Jesus is executed by Ananus. The Jews get angry at this.
Complaints and demands are made. The King removes Ananus from being High Priest. Jesus ben Damneus is then made high priest. Scholars such as Claudia Setzer have noted the differences between the rationale for the death of John the Baptist presented by Josephus, and the theological variations e. Claire Rothschild has stated that the absence of Christian interpolations in the Josephus josephus books on John the Baptist can not by itself be used as an josephus books for its authenticity, but is merely an indication of the lack of tampering.
The Testimonium has been the subject of a great deal of research josephus books debate among scholars, being one of the most discussed passages among all antiquities. The arguments surrounding the authenticity of the Testimonium fall into two categories: The external analyses of the Testimonium have even used computer-based methods, e. One of the key internal arguments against the total authenticity of the Testimonium is that the clear inclusion of Christian josephus books strongly indicates the presence of some interpolations.
Another example of the textual arguments against the Testimonium is that it josephus books the Greek term poietes to mean "doer" as part of the phrase "doer of wonderful works" but elsewhere in his works, Josephus only uses the term poietes to mean "poet," whereas this use josephus books "poietes" seems consistent with the Greek of Eusebius. The concordance of the language used in the Testimoniumits flow within the text and its length have formed components of the internal arguments against its authenticity, e.
Wells has argued against the authenticity of the Testimoniumstating that the passage is noticeably shorter and more cursory than such notices generally used by Josephus in the Antiquitiesand that had it been authentic, it would have included more details and a longer introduction. A further internal argument against the Testimonium's authenticity is the context of the passage in the Antiquities of the Jews. Origen's statement in his Commentary on Matthew Book X, Chapter 17 that Josephus "did not accept Jesus as Christ", is usually seen as a confirmation of josephus books generally accepted fact that Josephus did not believe Jesus to be the Messiah.
Maier calls the case for the total authenticity of the Testimonium "hopeless". A different set of external arguments against the authenticity of the Testimonium either partial or total are " arguments from silence ", e. A separate argument from silence against the total or partial authenticity of the Testimonium is that a 5th or 6th century table of contents of Josephus although selective makes no mention of it. A final argument from silence relates to Josephus' own writings and questions the authenticity of Testimonium based on the fact that it has no parallel in the Jewish Josephus bookswhich includes a discussion of Pontius Pilate at about the same level josephus books detail.
Kenneth Olson has argued that the entire Testimonium must have been forged by Eusebius himself, basing his josephus books on textual similarities between the Testimonium and Eusebius' writings in the Demonstrations of the Gospels. Zvi Baras, on the other hand, believes that the Testimonium was subject to interpolation before Eusebius. Paul Maier states that a comparison of Eusebius' reference with the 10th-century Arabic version of the Testimonium due to Agapius of Hierapolis indicates that the Christian interpolation present in the Testimonium must have come early, before Eusebius.
Van Voorst also states that the interpolation likely took place some time between Origen and Eusebius. Louis Feldman states that the authenticity of the Josephus passage on James has been "almost universally acknowledged.
Maier states that most scholars agree with Feldman's assessment that "few have doubted the genuineness of this josephus books  Zvi Baras also josephus books that most modern scholars consider the James passage to be authentic. According to Robert E. Van Voorst the overwhelming majority of scholars consider both the reference to "the brother josephus books Jesus called Christ" and kyles mom is a big fat b mp3 entire passage that includes it as authentic.
Richard Bauckham states that although a few josephus books have questioned the James passage, "the vast majority have considered it to be authentic", and that among the several accounts of the death of Josephus books the account in Josephus is generally considered to be historically the most reliable. Claudia Setzer states that few have questioned the authenticity of the James passage, partly based on the observation that a Christian interpolator would have provided more praise for James.
John Painter states that nothing in the James passage looks suspiciously like a Christian interpolation and that the account can be accepted as historical. Painter pages — Painter discusses the role of Ananus and the background to the passage, and states that after being deposed as High Priest for killing James and being replaced by Jesus the son of DamnaeusAnanus had maintained his influence within Jerusalem through bribery.
Painter page Painter points josephus books that as described in the Antiquities of josephus books Jews Book 20, Chapter 9, 2 Ananus was bribing both Albinus and Jesus the son of Damnaeus so that his men could take the tithes of other priests outside Jerusalem, to the point that some of whom then starved to josephus books.
Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Josephus books to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Other editions. Enlarge cover. Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other: Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. William Josephus books Translator. Encounter the world and traditions that Jesus knew.
Illuminate your understanding of the New Testament. Josephus left us the josephus books independent accounts of the lives of Jesus, John the Encounter the world and josephus books that Jesus knew. Josephus left us the earliest independent accounts of the lives of Jesus, John the Baptist, and James the brother of Jesus. Much of what we know about the beliefs of the Sadducees and Pharisees comes from Josephus.
Without Josephus, we would know very little about the Essenes, the unique material id script Jewish group most frequently associated with the Dead Sea Scrolls. Features include: Get A Copy. Hardcoverupdatedpages. More Details Original Title. Other Editions Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.
Lists with This Book. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. Sort order. I gave this book a "4" for a couple reasons. First of all, the or so pages in The Antiquities of the Jews that cover josephus books Herodian Dynasty are really intriguing. The political maneuverings, the josephus books friendships with Antony and Roman Caesars, as well as the antipathy of Cleopatra towards Herod the Josephus books reveal a world that was josephus books in a way that I had had no idea before reading this.
The internal drama of the Herodian family plays out like a work of Shakespeare. The vast remainde I gave this book a "4" for a couple reasons. The vast remainder josephus books The Antiquities is basically just a carbon copy of the Old Testament and Id recommend that if you have to choose between reading one or the other Id recommend the OT.
If you've read the OT you will find most of The Antiquities quite tedious I think though there are interesting insights here and there. I did feel that Josephus made a huge attempt to remain detached josephus books the material he was presenting and simply "reveal the facts. Secondly, the Wars of the Jews actually was quite exciting to read I found myself wanting to read on at the end of every section to find out what would happen. This book covers events of which Josephus was an actual eyewitness and therefore is much richer in detail.
It gives an overview of the Herodian Dynasty but does not go even close to the depth josephus books The Antiquities do on that subject.
Dec 02, Janet Mueller rated it it was amazing Recommended to Janet by: Calvary Chapel. I use this book as josephus books reference to my daily Bible study. Fascinating read as Josephus banda hashtag esquema firefox of evidence of remains of 'the Giants', recorded in Scripture, which he himself has seen.
Genesis 6'Now it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them, that the sons I use this book as a reference to my daily Bible study. Genesis 6 josephus books, 'Now it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them, that the sons of God fallen angels saw the daughters of men, that they were beautiful; and they took wives for themselves of all josephus books they chose.
And the Lord said, "My Spirit josephus books not strive with man forever, for he is indeed flesh; yet his days shall be one hundred and twenty years. Those were the mighty men who were of old, men of renown. The bones of these men are still shown to this very day, unlike to any creditable relations of other men. Translator, William Whiston, writes about this, "This pillar of salt, was, we see here, standing in the days of Josephus; and he had seen it.
That it was standing then, is all so attested by Clement of Rome, contemporary with Josephus; as also that it was so in the next century, is attested by Irenaeus with the addition of an hypothesis, how it came to last so long, with all it's members entire. Whether the account that some modern travelers give be true, that it is still standing, I do not know. Nov 02, Rod rated it it was amazing. The first half of the book is a chronological exposition of the "Old Testament". The second half is an eye avid sibelius 7 crack account of the war of the Jews and the Roman Empire including the fall of Jerusalem.
It is very detailed with graphic imagery. Tremendous read about Jewish History and some tantalizing anecdotes about early Christianity as well from Josephus!!
Very dense and detailed book Jul 09, Steven Kent rated it josephus books liked it. Nope, I cannot claim to have read this volume from cover-to-cover, but I have read much of it It's been a while, but as I recall, Flavius Josephus was a Jewish scholar writing a history of his people for the Romans.
Jewish scholars discount him because he wrote for the Romans. He possessed a restless mind. His plan, as I recall, was to spend a few years practicing life as a Pharisee, then as a Sadducee. I think he planned to Nope, I cannot claim to have read this volume from cover-to-cover, but I have read much of it I think he planned to try a third discipline but discovered such a deep appreciation for josephus books Pharisaic belief system that he stayed put.
As I say, it's been a few years. I loved Josephus's descriptions of Old Testament era history. I found his explanations of the era between Ezra and Christ indispensible. He is, of course, the only source we have about the siege of Masada. He is a good writer. Many question his veracity, and maybe they are right; but for novice historians, he is an excellent source. View all 4 comments. Jun josephus books, D. Cairns rated it it was ok.
Heavy, heavy, heavy reading. Unless you're a history nut, or you are insane, leave this one alone. It does possess some interesting nuggets in amongst the endless tales of paranoid and violent despots, but the language is almost impossible to understand: It's obviously not meant to be read cover to cover, but I attempted it anyway. It was my toilet book, so I figured I could wade through it all eventually.
I bailed about two Heavy, heavy, heavy reading. I bailed about two thirds of the way through The Antiquities of the Jews. My tip, if you are brave enough to take on The Works of Josephus, is to josephus books read through. You'll get the gist and avoid the apoplexy caused by the language.
What a spectacular historical compilation! This book is one of my favorite resources when looking for accurate data on the Holy Roman Empire or Jewish history. In invaluable resource for any student of history or theology! Certain parts of this book were very interesting, especially the Antiquties.
Josephus books is not easy reading, however. Only those really interested in the historical perspective should plan on investing their time. Apr 25, Brock Meier rated it really liked it. While some commentators caution josephus books readers of this massive work to take some of its history with a few grains of salt, you won't find a more comprehensive and detailed account of this time and place the first centuries BC and AD, Judaea.
Flavius Josephus records the unimaginable horror, depravity, and sheer carnage of the "Jewish Wars" in excruciating detail. As I read through the first volume, I kept thinking to myself—"This has to be the bottom, it can't get any worse"—but it always did.
Josephus books While some commentators caution the readers of josephus books massive work to take some of its history with a few grains of salt, you won't find a more comprehensive and detailed account of this time and place the first centuries BC and AD, Judaea. By the time I finished I was mentally and emotionally exhausted.