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App. C: A Homemade Fallout Meter, the KFM - Nuclear War Survival Skills
Two plastic bags Two Ways to Charge Cut two small hole Nuclear Ground Burst Explosion - Drawing. The complete KFM instructions include patterns to be cut out a thumb cut app used to construct the fallout meter. At a thumb cut app end of the instructions are extra patterns a thumb cut app 4 unnumbered pages. The reader is urged to use these extra patterns to make KFM's in normal peacetime and to keep the complete instructions intact for use during a recognized crisis period.
If Xerox copies of the patterns are used, they should be checked against the originals in order to make sure that they are the same size as the originals.
Some older copiers make copies with slightly enlarged dimensions. Even slightly enlarged copies of all the KFM patterns can be made satisfactory provided: These instructions, including the heading on this page and the illustrative a thumb cut app, can be photographed without additional screening and rapidly reproduced by a newspaper or printer. If you keep the KFM instructions intact, during a worsening crisis you will be able to use them to help your friends and thousands of your fellow citizens by making them available for reproduction.
If a nuclear war ever strikes the United States, survivors of the blast and fire effects would need to have reliable means of knowing when the radiation in the environment around their shelters had dropped enough to let them venture safely outside.
Civil defense teams could use a thumb cut app of surviving radio stations to give listeners a general idea of the fallout a thumb cut app in some broadcast areas. However, the fallout radiation can vary widely from point to point and the measurements are likely to be made too far from most shelters to make them accurate enough to use safely. Therefore, each shelter should have some dependable method of measuring the changing radiation dangers in its own area.
During a possible rapidly worsening nuclear crisis, or after a nuclear attack, most unprepared Americans could not buy or otherwise obtain a fallout meter -- an Instrument that would greatly improve their chances of surviving a nuclear war. Occupants of a fallout shelter should be able to minimize the radiation doses they receive. In order to effectively minimize the a thumb cut app doses, a dependable measuring instrument is needed to determine the doses they receive while they are in the shelter and while they are outside for emergency tasks, such as going out dj trance music 2013 get badly needed water.
Also, such an instrument would permit them to determine when it is safe to leave the shelter for good. Untrained families, guided only by these written instructions and using only low cost materials and tools found in most homes, have been able to make a KFM by working 3 or 4 hours.
It is understandable, easily repairable, and as accurate as most civil defense fallout meters. Before a nuclear attack occurs is the best time to build, test and learn how to use a KFM. However, this instrument is so simple that it could be made even after fallout arrives provided that all the materials and tools needed see lists given in Sections V, VI, and VII and a copy of these instructions have been carried into the shelter.
Before building a KFM, persons expecting a nuclear attack within a few hours or days and already in the place a thumb cut app they intend to await attack should work with the following priorities: At the same time, make and install a KAP a homemade shelter-ventilating pump - if instructions and materials are available.
If not a thumb cut app, at least make a Directional Fan. Also store montreal screwjob backstage youtube er least 15 gallons of water for each shelter occupant-- if containers are available.
Have different workers, or pairs of workers, make the parts a thumb cut app are best qualified to make. For example, a less skilled worker should start making the drying agent as described a thumb cut app Section VIII before other workers start making other parts.
The most skilled worker should make and install the aluminum-foil leaves Sections X and XI. Give workers the sections of the instructions covering the parts they are to build--so they can follow the step-by-step instructions, checking off with a pencil each step as it is completed. Discuss the problems that arise.
The head of the family often can give better answers if he first discusses the different possible interpretations of some instructions with other family members, especially teenagers. After completing one KFM and learning to use it, if time permits make a second KFM--that should be a better instrument. A KFM is a simple electroscope-ionization chamber fallout meter with which fallout radiation can be measured accurately.
To use a KFM, an electrostatic charge must first be placed on its two separate aluminum-foil leaves. These leaves are insulated by being a thumb cut app separately on clean, dry insulating threads. To take accurate readings, the air inside a KFM must be kept very dry by means of drying agents such as dehydrated gypsum easily made by heating gypsum wallboard, "sheetrock" or silica-gel. Mv exo history mp4 not use calcium chloride or other salt.
Pieces of drying agent are placed on the bottom of the ionization chamber the housing can of a KFM. An electrostatic charge is transferred from a homemade electrostatic charging device to the two aluminum-foil leaves of a KFM by means of its charging-wire. The charging-wire extends out through the transparent plastic cover of the KFM.
When the two KFM leaves are charged electrostatically, their like charges both positive or both negative cause them to be forced apart. When fallout gamma radiation that is similar to X rays but more energetic strikes the air inside the ionization chamber of a KFM, it produces charged ions in this enclosed air.
These charged ions cause part or all of the electrostatic a thumb cut app on the aluminum-foil leaves to be discharged. As a result of losing charge, the two KFM leaves move closer together. A KFM-maker who wants visual proof that his instrument can be partially or wholly discharged by ionizing radiation should persuade his dentist to place the charged KFM about 20 inches directly below a typical dental X-ray machine. Other types of machines will require different settings. Many dental X-ray machines are not accurately calibrated, nor do they produce gamma rays, so such tests should not be used in an attempt to check the accuracy of a KFM.
To read the separation of the lower edges of the two KFM leaves with one eye, look straight down on the leaves and the scale on the clear plastic cover. Keep the reading eye 12 inches above the SEAT. The KFM should be resting on a horizontal surface. To be sure the reading eye is always at this exact distance, place the lower end of a inch ruler on the SEAT, while the upper end of the ruler touches the eyebrow above a thumb cut app reading eye.
It is best to hold the KFM can with one hand and the ruler with the other. Using a flashlight makes the reading more accurate. A thumb cut app millimeter scale is cut out and attached see photo illustrations on the following page to the clear plastic cover of the KFM so that its zero mark is directly above the two leaves in their discharged position when the KFM is resting on a horizontal surface.
A reading of the separation of the leaves is taken by noting the number of millimeters that the lower edge of one leaf appears to be on, on one side of the zero mark on the scale, and almost at the a thumb cut app time noting the number of millimeters the lower edge a thumb cut app the other leaf appears to be on, on the other side of the zero mark.
The sum of these two apparent positions of trellian software lower edges of the two leaves is called a KFM reading. The drawing appearing after the photo illustrations shows the lower edges of the leaves of a K FM appearing to be 9 mm on the right of zero and 10 on the left, giving a KFM reading of 19 mm.
Usually the lower edges of the leaves are not at the same distance from the zero mark. Difference between the reading before exposure and the reading after exposure 8 ply standard foil leaves. Instructions on how to use a KFM are given after those detailing how to make and charge this fallout meter. Top Previous Next To get a clearer idea of the a thumb cut app and a thumb cut app of a KFM, look carefully at the following photos and read their captions.
An Uncharged KFM. The charging wire has been pulled to one side by its adjustment-thread. This photo was taken looking straight down at the upper edges of the two flat, 8-ply aluminum leaves. At this angle the leaves are barely visible, hanging vertically side by side directly under the zero mark, touching each other and with their ends even. Their suspension-threads insulate the leaves.
These threads are almost parallel and touch but do not cross each other where they extend minecraft masyaf castle the top of the rim of the can. Note that the charged tape is moved so that its surface is perpendicular to the charging-wire. The high-voltage electrostatic charge on the unwound tape that is an insulator jumps the spark-gap between the a thumb cut app and the upper end of the charging-wire, and then flows down the charging-wire to charge the insulated aluminum- foil leaves of the KFM.
Since the upper edges of the two leaves are 3A inch below the scale and this is a photo taken at an angle, both leaves appear to be under the right side of the scale. A Charged KFM. Note the separation of the upper edges of its two leaves. The charging- wire has been raised to an almost horizontal position so that its lower end is too far above the aluminum leaves to permit electrical leakage from the leaves back up the charging-wire and into the outside air. Also note the SEAT, a piece of pencil taped to the right side of the can, opposite the charging wire.
Reading a KFM. A inch ruler rests on the SEAT and is held vertical, while the reader's eyebrow touches the upper end of the ruler. The lower edge of the right leaf is under 8 on the scale and the lower edge of the left leaf is under 6 on the scale, giving a KFM reading of For accurate radiation measurements, a KFM should be placed on an approximately horizontal surface, but the charges on its two leaves and their displacements do not have to be equal. In these photos, the paper scale is taped to the top of the transparent plastic-film cover.
It is better to tape the scale to the under side of the cover, where it is less likely to be damaged. For the KFM: In the following list, when more than one alternative material is given, the best material is listed first.
Any type metal can. This is the size of a standard 8-ounce can. Standard aluminum foil - 2 square feet. In2 square feet of widely sold U. One gram equals 0. If only "Heavy Duty" or "Extra Heavy Duty" aluminum foil is available, make 5-ply leaves rather than 8-ply leaves of standard foil; the resultant fallout meter will he almost as accurate. Doorbell-wire, or other light insulated wire preferably, but not necessarily a single-strand wire inside the insulation -- 6 inches.
Any type of clean, fine thread that has not been anti-static treated will serve to suspend a KFM's leaves.
Almost all kinds of sewing thread and fly-tying thread manufactured in are anti-static treated, are poor insulators, and are unsatisfactory. In the best widely available excellent insulating thread is unwaxed dental floss; floss is not anti-static treated. Most unwaxed dental floss is too thick and a thumb cut app for properly suspending KFM leaves, but, since dental floss is not a twisted thread, you can make flexible strand-threads from it.
Make each no more than one- quarter as thick as the floss, and about 12 inches lung. First separate several strands at the end of the floss outside its dispenser. Then separate strands while pulling one way on the end of the strand-thread that you want and the other way on the unwanted strands.